Introduction & Mechanism of Enzymes

Introduction & Mechanism of Enzymes Regulation {#s2}  Metabolism is a vital process in all living organisms which is involved in homeostasis and the cellular, physiological, and pathophysiological processes ([@B1]). It is responsible for the production, transport, and storage of metabolites required for maintaining life. It is known that the maintenance of metabolism is extremely important for organisms; otherwise, they would be outmatched by their competitors ([@B2]). It is evident that enzymes play crucial role in regulating various pathways involved in maintaining the cellular equilibrium. Enzymes participate in all stages (metabolism and reaction) of major metabolic pathways (carbohydrate, lipid, amino acids, and nucleotides), and they also possess the ability to catalyze various chemical reactions (oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, respiration, protein synthesis) of the cell ([@B3]). Enzymes also play an important role in regulating various physiological processes. Apart from this role, they are also playing an irreplaceable role in designing potential drugs against various pathologies. Various enzymes may be deregulated resulting in diseases, which is a common phenomenon in all living creatures. A disease is nothing but a change in the metabolic and physiological process of a living cell, tissues, or organisms resulting in pathological/physiological conditions and eventually cell death. Changes in the metabolomic homeostasis can be modulated by synthetic or natural regulators, which targets the deregulated enzymes and helps in maintaining the equilibrium and homeostasis ([@B4]). Thus, to get a detailed insight into the molecular mechanisms of these diseases, it is essential to find out diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. This concept he said been achieved by targeting enzyme functions via drug/chemical inhibitors. This approach is considered to be a wise choice to treat and control different diseases.

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It has been known for a very long time that enzymes possess the ability to regulate their functions by various mechanisms, including (post transcriptional or transcriptional, post translational or post translational, allosteric, and feedback regulation) ([Figure 1A](#F1){ref-type=”fig”}) ([@B5]). Post transcriptional and post translational mechanisms occur before translation is initiated/terminated. Allosteric regulation is the direct mechanism for signaling from one domain to another, which happens subsequent to the enzymatic reaction. Feedback regulation happens after the products are released and the mechanism includes negative and positive feedback reaction mediated by various proteins. However, it is the most complicated due to the complex interactions between all metabolic pathways ([Figure 1B](#F1){ref-type=”fig”}). ![Different pathways of enzymes regulation. **(A)** shows the allosteric regulation. **(B)** shows the feedback regulation. **(C)** shows link co-substrate mediated regulation.](fendo-11-00022-g0001){#F1Introduction & Mechanism of Enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that have a catalytic action. A chemical reaction at a certain equilibrium constant proceeds relatively more rapidly under ordinary conditions than when noncatalytic proteins such as albumin, the carrier protein will take over the physiological activity. An enzyme is consumed like catalyst as long as it takes up the substrate molecules in the active centre.

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Enzymes are the one kind of catalysts superior in specificity and selectivity; that is, they react only to specific substrate molecules. The mechanism of the enzyme is not only from their definition such as catalysis and active centre but also the biological characteristic of the enzyme: whether it is intracellular (for energy production), extracellular (for chemical signalling), or membrane-bound (for the activity) enzyme. Enzymes are enzymes that have a protein unit and the substrate specificity is the specificity of their biological activity. Enzymes are the reaction catalysts and a biological reaction is biological when the enzyme happens to be existent. An enzyme therefore plays a central role in the biological process. The mechanism of enzyme can be classified according to type of enzyme and enzyme substance separately. We can divide enzymes according to some physical characters such as type of macromolecular and molecular structure, mechanism of action or principle of catalysis. The possible methods to study enzyme can be both physical-chemical and biological. Enzymes must react to the same character like substrate. The principle of enzyme can be analysed at molecular level such as biochemistry, nutrition, enzyme physiology, organism and organic chemistry of enzyme or physically as enzyme kinetics. The biological reaction of metabolism is catalytic reaction; the substrate of reaction is an enzyme molecule and finally, is an active centre which provides the electrochemical-force for chemical reaction of substrate and enzyme molecule as well. An enzyme molecule can react other substances or ions but it is not active as a catalyst and its only function is to catalyze some reaction. The general reaction of enzymes is the biological reactionIntroduction & Mechanism of Enzymes Every material organism is an end point of a dynamic machinery of biological metabolism to provide the raw materials and intermediary products required for life.

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It is no mistake to think of living organisms in terms of cellular metabolic networks, because both the cellular metabolism and resulting organismal systems are emergent, the product of the local metabolism. Cellular metabolism is a collection of chemical reactions designed by life-forms that collectively transform the raw materials, namely chemical and electrical energy, water, organic molecules, into the intermediary and final products, especially metabolic end products like carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Cellular metabolism is the most ancient life on Earth, and by extension is likely universal to all life forms. Most of the macromolecular constituents of organisms are synthesis products from the local biochemical networks. Cellular metabolism and organisms result from hundreds of biochemical reactions that interact, compete, cross talk, diffuse etc., over time and throughout space to create a far-reaching and intricate network. Cellular metabolism and organisms are products of metabolic molecular networks, a wide family of reactions involving transfer of energy and electrons (redox equilibria), hydronium ions (hydrolysis), oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other constituents. Biochemical Activity-Based Organization of Cellular Metabolism More cells, called heterotrophic cell metabolism, are needed for the complete biochemical reactions that constitute cellular metabolism. For complete metabolism to occur, these cells must be organized, and most of the reactions are performed browse this site the metabolic scaffolds of membranes and matrixes. Moreover, these metabolic pathways are organized into sub-systems based on functional relationships as well as other factors including regulation, compartmentation and transport. The central dogma in cell metabolism is: to generate and use the structural molecular scaffolds for life, the basic functionality of life needs to occur in: (1) metabolic reactions happen at the peripheral membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and peroxisomes; (2) to produce the most substrates needed for reactions, like carbohydrates, fats and proteins, etc., cells build massive reserves by polymerizing their enzymes, generating granular and aggregated structures with a loose structural matrix of membranes and glycans; (3) metabolism is organized into pathways, sub-systems and modules that share a common function, while reaction cycles or modules are often called a series connected network clusters as they often show cross regulation and feedback reactions. Different organisms have distinct numbers of metabolic subsystems/modules and associated reactions due to the properties that define these networks, in other words, these networks arise from the interactions between functional proteins, phospholipids, genetic/epigenetic components like ribosomes and r-proteins, RNA and DNA of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic world.

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Prokaryote subsystems interact with each other through metabolite diffusion, and are organized into cell layers and organized in continuous sheets, for example photos

Introduction & Mechanism of Enzymes

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