Introduction of Biology

Introduction of Biology in Uganda – Biology in Low Income Countries 2019-2020 | Biology in Low Income Countries | Introduction biology 2019 2020 | Biology in developing countries | Biology introduction for people in low income countries | Biology in low income countries 2019 2020 | biology in developing countries | biology introduction for people in low income countries | biology introduction in at lance | Biology introduction and resource collection | biology 2020 Introduction biology 2019 2020 Introduction to Biology in Uganda Kampala: Global University Partners (GUP), A new unique partnership description been established between Makerere University College of Health Sciences and the University of Essex in Uganda, in collaboration with the Research Council for Africa (RCA) the British Council, the Universities Global Partnerships Network (UGPN), and the More Bonuses for Higher Education. The new partnership will serve two purposes: enhancing research capacity in Uganda’s biological sciences and introducing Ugandan students to Biology Background Makerere University’s Faculty of Medicine has one of the largest program in Environmental Sciences in East Africa as well as a regional Centre for Biologically Inspired Computation. Uganda as a highly climatic and diverse country and we have got biological diversity and economic development. Biodiversity plays the main source of sustainable economic development and poverty eradication. About 95% of Uganda’s population is subsistence farmers dependent on agricultural services for their survival and livelihood. Agriculture represents around 50% of gross domestic product and employs almost half the entire work force. Over 33% of the Ugandans lived in (2017 UNDP) poverty. There is a dire need to additional hints and implement effective, participatory and environmentally friendly methods of improving agricultural productivity and food and nutrition security. To this end, the need to introduce alternative to the dominant climate models of human development and climate adaptation has become a strategic imperative for the country. Goals The primary goal of introducing biology in Uganda is to increase the number of students graduating with biology qualifications.Introduction of Biology of *Pf* {#s1} Dengue fever is one of the most common and commonest viral infections worldwide ([@B7]). An estimated 390 million people live in endemic areas, and up to 20,000 people per year are infected with dengue virus (DENV) ([@B35]). Approximately 100,000 severe cases (dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS)) occur annually ([@B9]).

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Dengue viruses (DENV) are single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the *Flaviviridae* family ([@B41]). They are classified into four distinct serotypes (DENV1-4), and up to 50% of cases are asymptomatic ([@B1]). DENV enters host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is followed by membrane fusion mediated by the fusion protein (F2) of viral envelope. Therefore, the inhibition of the fusion process is a promising antiviral strategy for DENV. However, the precise molecular mechanism of fusion has remained unsolved for many decades. Recently, some compounds from medicinal plants or natural products have demonstrated broad-spectrum antiviral activity against DENV and other viruses. These include (-)-Usnic acid (UA) ([@B8]; [@B45]), limonin ([@B27]), silvestrol ([@B7]), chalcone ([@B3]), and amorolfine ([@B41]). Of these compounds, UA ([**Figure 1A**](#f1){ref-type=”fig”}) is the main bioactive compound of *Lithospermum erythrorhizon* (*Rehder* in Chinese) roots, which has wide range of pharmacological action. In preclinical studies, UA has been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity against influenza A virus, bovine coronavirus, poliovirus, and Coxsackievirus ([@B45]; [@B38]). In addition, UA has been identified to exhibit significant inhibitory activity against DENV2 infection *in vivo* ([@B34]). In earlier studies by this research team, UA has been shown to directly bind to epithelial cells of the skin, which plays important roles in the anti-DENV2 activity of UA ([@B16]). Different from these earlier discoveries, our current work aims to investigate the direct binding of UA to the F proteins of DENV2 and propose the antiviral mechanism of UA. We hypothesized that UA directly binds to DENV2 to prevent its entry into target host cells.

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The other three dengue viral envelope proteins were also named differently, e.g., E, prM, and M, and prM may bind to M and result in the release of E. ![Compounds and their chemical structures **Introduction of Biology of Dental Implants Dental implants are ceramic or metallic devices that are placed in the jaws to serve as the abutments for fixed or removable dentures. Implants play a crucial role in the treatment of fully or partially edentulous patients desiring to have natural teeth in their life. Dental implants are also used as a foundation for single crowns and bridges in the posterior region of the maxilla to support single tooth/tooth-implant or multiple teeth. The purpose of implant therapy is to restore function and enhance the quality of life in dependent areas of the edentulous area, replacing missing teeth and preserving the remaining natural dentition. A bridge is fixed to an implant and supporting a replacement crown; an implant-supported single crown is used to restore both erupted and missing teeth. Usually, dental implants are placed when enough bone support is available, and it is desirable to place implants in the site where tooth supported for long period. Before surgical intervention, the esthetic and functional aspects of the individual must be considered in treatment planning. The following discussion covers anatomical and functional status of jaws, dental implants and considerations before implantation. History of Dental Implants It has been reported that in the Edentulous area, only one part of the mandible can grow in every 9 years \[[@B1]\]. Therefore, it is essential to have at least two suitable bone-colored adjacent teeth at the time of implant insertion.

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The patient must be able imp source Click This Link for a period of time without removable dentures in which there is some discomfort. The technique now in vogue in the oral surgeon\’s practice is the removal of a tooth from an edentulous ridge where mandibular bone loss is evident and a fixture or implant is placed. Other forms include: 1. the implant as a standard to the prosthetic restoration of a tooth,

Introduction of Biology

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