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There is a wide spectrum of viewpoints on science within the Islamic world. The Quran and Islam allow much interpretation when it comes to science.
Muslim scientists contributed greatly to new discoveries in science during medieval Muslim civilization. However, they did not accept the introduction of Western scientific theories.
The Purification of the Heart
In the Quran, Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala refers to the heart (qalb) no less than 130 times. It is mentioned in the sunnah many more times, as well.
The heart is an extremely important part of the human being and plays a crucial role in all aspects of life. It is the most sensitive organ of the human body, and therefore the Quran teaches us how to maintain it.
Muslims have been told to purify their hearts by avoiding sin and repenting from it. This is done through prayers, supplications, charity, and good deeds.
A pure heart is one that is free from arrogance and pride, and tries to please Allah. It is also one that is devoted to the aims of Islam and always remembers Allah. This requires constant attention.
The Integration of Knowledge
Science is one of the most important aspects of Islamic teachings. Islam encourages Muslims to pursue knowledge for social betterment and for the good of mankind.
The integration of science and religion is a major concern for many Muslim scholars. This is because many modern sciences in the West that exclude religious norms, have had a negative effect on Muslims who are devoted to Allah SWT (Che Haslina Abdullah).
Therefore, there is an effort among Muslims to reintegrate science and religion. This process is often called the Islamization of science.
There are many ways to Islamize science. It can either be done by wrapping Western science with the label of Islam, or by transforming religious norms based on the Qur’an and Hadith to fit empirical data.
The Appreciation of Signs in Nature
The Qur’an refers to many natural phenomena as signs or symbols (ayat) of God, reflecting His Oneness and Perfection. This concept is also confirmed by modern scientists.
Islam encourages the exploration and study of nature because it is a path to recognize God. When a Muslim sees nature in a positive way, this will increase their appreciation of Allah’s power and grace.
For example, in the Qur’an, God mentions some of His creations as signs for people who possess firm faith. The skies, plants, the oceans, mountains, and the alternation of the day and night are all examples of His signs in nature.
This is why Islamic science is anchored in Muslim scientists’ attempts to unearth, comprehend and appreciate the signs of Allah in nature. They then draw on whatever such signs may offer to the good of humankind and the advancement of civilization.
The Encouragement of Technological Advances
Islam encourages technological advances, both scientific and social, in consonance with basic teachings of the religion. These advances help to resolve many of the challenges that humans face on a daily basis, such as climate change, food security, economic clean energy and access to treatment for serious diseases.
For example, Internet cafes have been set up in major cities and regional centers throughout the Middle East. These facilities give people who cannot afford their own computers access to information and news.
Islamic scholars embraced science because it was a method for understanding the world and for accomplishing religious rituals. It also offered Muslims a means of experiencing the unity of creation, which was another central theme in their religion.
Despite the fact that there is some resentment among Islamic conservatives about Western scientific discoveries, such as oil-extraction methods and weapons, most Muslims today embrace the latest technological innovations with no hesitation. They also issue fatwas (legal opinions) on the Internet without fear of it being haram (prohibited). This is because it serves a purpose, such as the preservation of family lineage and ties of love and compassion.